Review Article| Volume 39, ISSUE 1, P147-155, April 2023

Download started.


Vesicular Stomatitis Virus

Published:February 01, 2023DOI:


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.


      Subscribe to Veterinary Clinics: Equine Practice
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Rodríguez L.L.
        Emergence and Re-Emergence of Vesicular Stomatitis in the United States.
        Virus Res. 2002; 85: 211-219
      1. Vesicular Stomatitis Outbreak Situation Reports on USDA-APHIS.
        (Available at:) (Accessed on 11 June 2022)
        • Pelzel-McCluskey A.M.
        Vesicular Stomatitis.
        in: Winter A.L. Merck veterinary manual. online edition. Merck & Co, Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA2020 (Available at:) (Accessed on 11 June 2022)
        • Duarte P.C.
        • Morley P.S.
        • Traub-Dargatz J.L.
        • et al.
        Factors Associated with Vesicular Stomatitis in Animals in the Western United States.
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008; 232: 249-256
        • Mohler J.R.
        Vesicular stomatitis of horses and cattle; bulletin No 662.
        United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, USA1918
        • Hanson R.P.
        The natural history of vesicular stomatitis.
        Bacteriol Rev. 1952; 16: 179-204
        • Schmidtmann E.T.
        • Tabachnick W.J.
        • Hunt G.J.
        • et al.
        1995 Epizootic of Vesicular Stomatitis (New Jersey Serotype) in the Western United States: An Entomologic Perspective.
        J Med Entomol. 1999; 36: 1-7
        • Tesh R.B.
        • Boshell S.J.
        • Modi G.B.
        • et al.
        Natural infection of humans, animals, and phlebotomine sand flies with the alagoas serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus in Colombia.
        Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1987; 36: 653-661
        • Schnitzlein W.
        • Reichmann M.
        Characterization of New Jersey vesicular stomatitis virus isolates from horses and black flies during the 1982 outbreak in Colorado.
        Virology. 1985; 142: 426-431
        • Elias E.
        • McVey D.S.
        • Peters D.
        • et al.
        contributions of hydrology to vesicular stomatitis virus emergence in the Western USA.
        Ecosystems. 2018; 22: 416-433
        • Rainwater-Lovett K.
        • Pauszek S.J.
        • Kelley W.N.
        • et al.
        Molecular epidemiology of vesicular stomatitis new jersey virus from the 2004–2005 us outbreak indicates a common origin with Mexican Strains.
        J Gen Virol. 2007; 88: 2042-2051
        • Rodriguez L.L.
        • Bunch T.A.
        • Fraire M.
        • et al.
        Re-emergence of vesicular stomatitis in the western united states is associated with distinct viral genetic lineages.
        Virology. 2000; 271: 171-181
        • Velazquez-Salinas L.
        • Pauszek S.J.
        • Zarate S.
        • et al.
        Phylogeographic characteristics of vesicular stomatitis new jersey viruses circulating in mexico from 2005 to 2011 and their relationship to epidemics in the United States.
        Virology. 2014; 449: 17-24
        • Mason J.
        • Herrera Saldaña A.
        • Turner W.J.
        Vesicular stomatitis in Mexico.
        Proc Annu Meet U S Anim Health Assoc. 1976; 80 (Miami Beach, FL, USA): 234-253
        • Peters D.P.C.
        • McVey D.S.
        • Elias E.H.
        • et al.
        Big data-model integration and AI for vector-borne disease prediction.
        Ecosphere. 2020; 11: e03157
        • Pelzel-McCluskey A.M.
        Economic impacts of vesicular stomatitis outbreaks.
        Equine Dis Q. 2015; 24: 5
      2. Toms D, Powell M, Redlinger M, et al. Monitoring of four naturally infected horses for vesicular stomatitis antibody. In Proceedings of the annual meeting American association of veterinary laboratory diagnosticians, Greensboro, NC, USA, 20 October 2012. Available at: (Accessed on 28 June 2022).

        • Pelzel-McCluskey A.M.
        • Christensen B.
        • Humphreys J.
        • et al.
        Review of Vesicular Stomatitis in the United States with Focus on 2019 and 2020 Outbreaks.
        Pathogens. 2021; 10: 993